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PHP Tutorial

PHP Introduction

PHP 5 Installation

PHP 5 Syntax

PHP 5 Variables

PHP 5 echo and print Statements

PHP 5 Data Types

PHP 5 String Functions

PHP 5 Constants

PHP Arithmetic Operators

PHP 5 if...else...elseif Statements

PHP 5 switch Statement

PHP 5 while Loops

PHP 5 for Loops

PHP 5 Functions

PHP 5 Arrays

PHP 5 Sorting Arrays

PHP 5 Superglobals

PHP Forms

PHP 5 Form Handling

PHP 5 Form Validation

PHP 5 Forms - Required Fields

PHP 5 Forms E-mail /URL

PHP Form Complete

PHP Advanced

PHP 5 Multidimensional Arrays

PHP 5 Date and Time

PHP Include Files

PHP File Handling

PHP File Open/Read

PHP File Create/Write

PHP File Upload

PHP Cookies

PHP Sessions

PHP E-mail

PHP Secure E-mails

PHP Error Handling

PHP Exception Handling

PHP Filter

PHP Database

PHP MySQL Introduction

PHP MySQL Connect

PHP Create DB/Tables

PHP MySQL Insert Into

PHP MySQL Select

PHP MySQL Where

PHP Order By

PHP Update

PHP Delete

PHP ODBC

 

PHP Arithmetic Operators

This chapter shows the different operators that can be used in PHP scripts.


PHP Arithmetic Operators

Operator Name Example Result
+ Addition $x + $y Sum of $x and $y
- Subtraction $x - $y Difference of $x and $y
* Multiplication $x * $y Product of $x and $y
/ Division $x / $y Quotient of $x and $y
% Modulus $x % $y Remainder of $x divided by $y
** Exponentiation $x ** $y Result of raising $x to the $y'th power (Introduced in PHP 5.6)

The example below shows the different results of using the different arithmetic operators:

Example

<?php 
$x=10; 
$y=6;
echo ($x + $y); // outputs 16
echo ($x - $y); // outputs 4
echo ($x * $y); // outputs 60
echo ($x / $y); // outputs 1.6666666666667 
echo ($x % $y); // outputs 4 
?>

PHP Assignment Operators

The PHP assignment operators are used to write a value to a variable.

The basic assignment operator in PHP is "=". It means that the left operand gets set to the value of the assignment expression on the right.

Assignment Same as... Description
x = y x = y The left operand gets set to the value of the expression on the right
x += y x = x + y Addition
x -= y x = x - y Subtraction
x *= y x = x * y Multiplication
x /= y x = x / y Division
x %= y x = x % y Modulus

The example below shows the different results of using the different assignment operators:

Example

<?php 
$x=10; 
echo $x; // outputs 10

$y=20; 
$y += 100;
echo $y; // outputs 120

$z=50;
$z -= 25;
echo $z; // outputs 25

$i=5;
$i *= 6;
echo $i; // outputs 30

$j=10;
$j /= 5;
echo $j; // outputs 2

$k=15;
$k %= 4;
echo $k; // outputs 3
?>

PHP String Operators

Operator Name Example Result
. Concatenation $txt1 = "Hello"
$txt2 = $txt1 . " world!"
Now $txt2 contains "Hello world!"
.= Concatenation assignment $txt1 = "Hello"
$txt1 .= " world!"
Now $txt1 contains "Hello world!"

The example below shows the results of using the string operators:

Example

<?php
$a = "Hello";
$b = $a . " world!";
echo $b; // outputs Hello world! 

$x="Hello";
$x .= " world!";
echo $x; // outputs Hello world! 
?>

PHP Increment / Decrement Operators

Operator Name Description
++$x Pre-increment Increments $x by one, then returns $x
$x++ Post-increment Returns $x, then increments $x by one
--$x Pre-decrement Decrements $x by one, then returns $x
$x-- Post-decrement Returns $x, then decrements $x by one

The example below shows the different results of using the different increment/decrement operators:

Example

<?php
$x=10; 
echo ++$x; // outputs 11

$y=10; 
echo $y++; // outputs 10

$z=5;
echo --$z; // outputs 4

$i=5;
echo $i--; // outputs 5
?>

PHP Comparison Operators

The PHP comparison operators are used to compare two values (number or string):

Operator Name Example Result
== Equal $x == $y True if $x is equal to $y
=== Identical $x === $y True if $x is equal to $y, and they are of the same type
!= Not equal $x != $y True if $x is not equal to $y
<> Not equal $x <> $y True if $x is not equal to $y
!== Not identical $x !== $y True if $x is not equal to $y, or they are not of the same type
> Greater than $x > $y True if $x is greater than $y
< Less than $x < $y True if $x is less than $y
>= Greater than or equal to $x >= $y True if $x is greater than or equal to $y
<= Less than or equal to $x <= $y True if $x is less than or equal to $y

The example below shows the different results of using some of the comparison operators:

Example

<?php
$x=100; 
$y="100";

var_dump($x == $y);
echo "<br>";
var_dump($x === $y);
echo "<br>";
var_dump($x != $y);
echo "<br>";
var_dump($x !== $y);
echo "<br>";

$a=50;
$b=90;

var_dump($a > $b);
echo "<br>";
var_dump($a < $b);
?>

PHP Logical Operators

Operator Name Example Result
and And $x and $y True if both $x and $y are true
or Or $x or $y True if either $x or $y is true
xor Xor $x xor $y True if either $x or $y is true, but not both
&& And $x && $y True if both $x and $y are true
|| Or $x || $y True if either $x or $y is true
! Not !$x True if $x is not true


PHP Array Operators

The PHP array operators are used to compare arrays:

Operator Name Example Result
+ Union $x + $y Union of $x and $y (but duplicate keys are not overwritten)
== Equality $x == $y True if $x and $y have the same key/value pairs
=== Identity $x === $y True if $x and $y have the same key/value pairs in the same order and of the same types
!= Inequality $x != $y True if $x is not equal to $y
<> Inequality $x <> $y True if $x is not equal to $y
!== Non-identity $x !== $y True if $x is not identical to $y

The example below shows the different results of using the different array operators:

Example

<?php
$x = array("a" => "red", "b" => "green"); 
$y = array("c" => "blue", "d" => "yellow"); 
$z = $x + $y; // union of $x and $y
var_dump($z);
var_dump($x == $y);
var_dump($x === $y);
var_dump($x != $y);
var_dump($x <> $y);
var_dump($x !== $y);
?>